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REnewables etc

david judbarovski

Wed, Oct 19, 2016 at 4:16 PM
To: vtokarev <vtokarev@polynet.lviv.ua>, vtokarev <vtokarev@lp.edu.ua>
Виктор Сергеевич, возможен бизнес, с быстрой отдачей, и потенциально
гигантской прибыльности - малыми силами в начале и имеющимися в вашем
У меня в нём особый личный интерес, из "благодарности" к зубным
врачам, чьими стараниями я потерял практически все зубы - а мог бы
этого избежать, и таких лохов миллиарды людей, живущих на Земле идущих
больше по обычаю к этих бандитам.
Понимаю, что у Вас с маленькой Вашей группой хватает проблем, но
предлагаю и эту новую, полагая что на принципиальное решение которой
вплоть до создания препарата уже коммерческого патентованного
качества, но очень дешёвого, доступного и простого, хватит порядка
месяца ( у меня звериная интуиция в таких делах, нюх как у
натренированной собаки).
Может потребоваться квалифицированный микробиолог, главным образом для
изучения литературы (помниться, у вас есть там, Шульга), сам препарат
- это типа полоскания или зубной пасты, и насколько я по быстрому смог
вникнуть в проблему - даже ежедневного употребления препарата может не
потребоваться, а типа раз в несколько дней. Есть конечно и иные
способы решения задачи, например ультрафиолетовый или/и инфракрасный
облучатель по форме и габаритам зубной щётки, но это уже не Вам
наверно, но тоже могли бы поучаствовать как химик-органик-пищевик и
даже просто как технолог с общеинженерной базой. Правда дело может
закончиться взяткой от цехового объединения зубных врачей, чтоб дальше
не возникали. Наверно так и было в нашем случае и не раз в истории, в
том числе перекупкой патентов и дорогими патентными судами.
Всё что мне ещё интересно - это узнать заинтересовала ли Вас или ваших
коллег и сотрудников эта тема.
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Future potential of concentrated PV-power
Author: David Judbarovski, pensioner, Israel
judbarovski@gmail.com , http://judbarovski.livejournal.com

I will give here principle economical estimations only, because absolutely impossible to predict exact prices of materials and parts aren’t commercialized till now in the designed devices. 
I consider here a pair of small mirrors of 1 m2 solar flux. One of them is planar one and serves to redirect solar beams on the second mirror being a dish concentrator, so its focal spot is motionless with motionless multilayer PV-cell (MMPV). Earlier I had proved that such concentrating pair is about USD 10.0/m2 solar flux for up to 600 Centigrade in focal spot. In a case of concentration ratio 400:1, it would be not more than USD 25.0/m2 and additional USD 25.0 for the MMPV-cell, if supposing USD 10.0/Watt. Liquid butane at (-1.0 C) is stored in tanks and then can be distributed through a tubes by short pulses some times a day for cooling the MMPV by evaporation. The said vapor is return back to its liquefying facility through the same tubes.  Supposing the MMPV efficiency to be 50% and if Israel weather conditions, the MMPV can generate 1000 kWh electricity annually with power up to 500 Watt/m2, with heat loses 1000 kWh and 500 W too.
It consumes 21 kJ/mol butane, or 0.1 kWh/kg. so the MMPV needs 10 kg butane to be cooled daily. It is about 1.2 kWh electricity using a quite cheap device.
Cold loses would be negligible. Thermal insulation adds less than 1.0 USA dollars to cost of the MMPV.
Being summarized, the system’s energy efficiency would be (5 – 1.2)/10 kWh = 0.38 and can produce 0.38 * 2000 kWh * 5 years payback = 3800 kWh electricity by about USD 50.0 + 10%, so the system electricity would be about 1.5 USA cents/kWh. It well competes with present energy markets, but much worse than can give my earlier inventions
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Method to save a lot of world forests out of extermination for human economics’ needs
Author: David Judbarovski, pensioner, retired systems engineer, Israel
judbarovski@gmail.com, http://judbarovski.livejournal.com
{133}, {138}, {140}, {141}, [1509], [3561], [3462], [3563], [5365], [3555], [1544], [1545], [3560]

Initial articles of the cycle are:
http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/125502.html - Industrial way to produce cellulose from inorganic matter, 3/31/2016
http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/134358.html - About bad economics of industrial cellulose photosynthesis by artificial light, 9/20/2016
http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/38539.html - Algae farm, Apr. 3, 2011

Here I don’t intend to repeat the said above-mentioned articles as introduction to the theme and refer you to them.
Now I want to investigate in principle economical and agricultural aspects of production of hydrocarbons as a part of biomass of algae or chemotrophic bacteria as a raw stuff for following production of artificial cellulose can substitute woods now used for pulp & paper and cellulose production for following eliminate them and non-biodegradable plastics now massively used in human economics as package and teхtile materials and for many other applications.
Below I’ll consider a possibility to obtain such hydrocarbons and artificial cellulose from them to be compatible by cost with conventional woods biomass and cellulose from the woods.
Now the world markets consumes  annually about 600 million ton of papers and cartboard and cellulose, mainly from recycled ones (about 50% ) and it exterminates about 750 million ton of high quality trees and other plants on area ~ 1.5 million sq. km annually and needs for restoring about 30 years. Hence about 45 million km2 of lands needs for that industry. Craft paper roll is ~ USD 200/ton, and cellulose is twice more expensive.
High productive sea algae in nature conditions can give about 50 kg dry biomass or more per m2, and 20% of it or even more can be hydrocarbons, then can be converted in cellulose of ~4 kg/m2 of algae farm area, can consume open sea area on floating algae farms (see also 'Breakthroug cheap artificial island', 2016. http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/129091.html ), and absolutely does no use any land area. Certainly, it is looked as ordinary hydroponic agriculture, but gives much higher harvest by much lower cost, is compatible with natural wood prices.
For example, Giant Kelp algae can grow 40 kg dry w./m2 (5.5% daily) and need 50 Watt of sun, so we can use 2-3 floor farm, the lowest one is for Giant Kelt farming with 50-65% of fibers being polysaccharides in its biomass, and upper stores is for other species grow to make designed shadow for lowest store.
In a case of hydrogen chemotrophic bacteria we can feed them by practically free hydrogen by 10 cent/kg and by USD 5.0/ton CO2 captured from atmospheric air, by their producing technology invented by me earlier too.    
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Method to overcome completely all heavy problems of urban traffic
Author: David Judbarovski, systems engineer, pensioner, Israel
judbarovski@gmail.com, http://judbarovski.livejournal.com

Here I can offer a simple and cheap method to overcome completely all heavy problems of urban traffic now suffered by:
(1) traffic jams as a consequence of growing incompatibility of urban roads  and growing quantity of private cars on the roads were built in absolutely another epoch. So average cars velocity is quite slow simultaneously inducing very wasteful fuel consume with more harmful exhaust.
(2) electric cars and hybrid ones use rechargeable battery being in principle very expensive and heavy devices with quite short lifetime;
(3) private cars are used for the traffic during a very small part of their lifetime. The general state of them is a parking at the roads sides decreasing the roads capacity. As a rule, they are a big cars with four or more sits used for one-two persons’ traveling.
(4) Mini- cars now being in more and more quantity on the roads, they have a low velocity in principle for their travelers saving. So in spite of a common point of view, they are lowering the traffic capacity. Analogously it is right for bicycles as human muscles powered ones as the ones equipped by rechargeable battery;
(5) All above-mentioned transportation means are suffered by human mistakes on the road vs. even present level of self-driving cars.
(6) In a case of crashes or breakage of a private car, the car’s owner is faced to be lonely with such problems on the road and afterword or attract nearest service of quality being unknown to him.

Certainly, the UBER Technology Inc. model of private taxi network which allows consumers with smartphones to submit a trip request, it is a first step in right direction for completely overcome of all heavy problems of urban traffic.
Certainly, the said private taxi can be self-driving cars be in a future applications, but it is in our hands to bring the future to be realized in nearest two-three years, because all technologies for it are known, and the said point of view is known and it isn’t my own invention or discovery. Such system can automatically optimize the choice of best traffic route for minimizing the time and the cost of the route and the taxi waiting time. What we would be needed, it is to order the start and final point and quantity of passengers and cargo, and  a willing time of delivery and that is all.
But here I can add the offer to use electric car taxi powered by clean and twice more cheap energy than from fossil fuels analogously to trolleybus or so. It can extremely cheapen and lighten the said electric taxi, because it would be not needed in rechargeable batteries, but only a tiny one allowing to manoeuvre on the road. We wouldn’t  need to charge powerful batteries, but can charge our gadgets along the travel and use them by free internet.
Moreover, all private cars can be removed for parking at park stations outside the city bonderies and be used for outside city travels only.
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Artificial carbon base fuels can compete with now cheap fossil ones
Author: David Judbarovski, pensioner, Israel
judbarovski@gmauil.com, http://judbarovski.livejournal.com
 {140}-(5)- Sept 18, 2016
The said above-mentioned thesis is based on my inventions of last years and promising the tremendously cheap hydrogen by 10 cents/kg (http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/133945.html ), cheap carbon dioxide by about USD 5.0/ton (http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/132709.html or much cheaper - see http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/132407.html ), and extremely cheap heat and electricity for production of them (http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/133020.html, and http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/84244.html ).
CO2 + 3 H2 = CH2 (oil) + 2 H2O + 240 kJ/mol = 680 kWh of high temp heat per a bbl of the oil. Such oil would be (44 * 5 + 100 * 6)/14 = 58.6 * 0.159 * 0.9 = USD 8.38/bbl + ~20 $ O & M being so cheap because such process is using clean reagents aren’t needed any purification vs. classical processes using coal or natural gas for syngas production. So our artificial oil is cheaper USD 30.0/bbl.
Analogous estimation for Sabatier process of methane production gives 36 $/ 1000 m3, and 38 $/bbloe for methanol. The last can be used for cheap ethanol or dimethyl ether, the both being more suitable fuel for civil applications. Moreover, the methanol is very worthy for different chemistry.     
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About bad economics of industrial cellulose photosynthesis by artificial light
Author: David Judbarovski, pensioner, Israel
judbarovski@gmail.com, http://judbarovski.livejournal.com

After news in our media to prohibit large retail chains to supply free plastic bags for their buyers from 1.04.2016, any change wasn’t in our Israel.
It is well known that such bags from PP and PE thrown provide big problem for ecology, while paper bags and other ones made of cellulose based materials that well destroyed naturally, but produced from plants, so it is badly accompanied by deforestation and destruction of soils on global scale.
Technologies for industrial production of cellulose are known, but use organic raw material like sugar and so on, but they are the plants derivatives too.

A possibility of cellulose made  industrially from inorganic matter was investigated by me in http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/125502.html
A possibility of carbohydrates production, and cellulose one in particular using artificial lighting instead of natural light is well known, but till now is limited by special applications, because being very expensive, and wasn’t able to compete with natural product by its cost, but by shortening production land area only, and it is common point of view.
The properties of bacterial cellulose are quite different from those of plant celluloses, The especial concerns the ultrafine architecture, high hydrophilicity, and mouldability during formation, high mechanical strength in wet state, enormous waterretention values, low roughness of the inner surface demonstrate the high potential of the artificial cellulose for many applications (“Progress in Polymer Science”, Vol. 26, Issue 9, November 2001, Pages 1561-1603, Elsevier Science Ltd.).
Enthalpy of formation of carbohydrates is 1258 kJ for mole so ideal energy for the carbohydrate production by 6 CO2 + 6 H2O = C6H12O6 is 15.64 kJ/gram = 4340 kWh/ton
Supposing high energy efficiency of the said photosynthesis by high productive selected bacteria, or aquatic plants in particular, to be 15%-20%, so it would be about 25,000 kWh per a ton. Such electricity can be USD 0.0012/kWh or less for sunny regions if using my tremendously cheap solar system (see its disclosure in a body of http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/133296.html ).
So if 10% transforming of the said electricity in the light by gas lamps, the energy consume would be about 250,000 kWh/ton, or USD 300.0/ton. The gas lamps cost can by USD 2.0/20W = 0.1 per Watt by retail price, or some times cheaper, if a big order. Let be USD 40/kW with 10,000 hours lifetime, so it adds 0.4 cents * 250,000 = USD 1000.0/ton.
Totally it is USD 1300/ton of raw absolute dry biomass being about 20 times more expensive than wood logs equivalent.    
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Breakthrough cheap and simple water splitting, if using micro-waves generator
Author: David Judbarovski, pensioner, Israel
judbarovski@gmail.com , http://judbarovski.livejournal.com
As an idea it goes me back to 2014

Conventional vacuum micro-waves generators are characterized by very high energy efficiency of industrial quality electricity transforming into electromagnetic field at normal operational conditions (up to 80% for industrial quality samples) and can produce EM-energy up to many Megawatt in pulse of tens or hundreds kW average.
It allows to use the EM energy concentrator being a simple optical mirror for focusing the said energy, can be the resonance for the water frequency, on a small spot under  the water surface, on the small target to reach about 2500 Centigrade being enough to split the water on hydrogen and oxygen, the both are instantly cooled down to normal temperature by surrounded water, so we can use the water of any purity, e.g. seawater, or any dirty water etc, and any water vessel can be a cheap plastic. The concentrating mirror can be quite cheap too and be able to be cooled by traditional means.
Input electricity can be USD 0.001-0.002/kWh or even cheaper, and the electricity can be  renewable electricity of any supply schedule up to round-the-clock and all-year-round ( see the said issues disclosure in http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/133296.html ). So the water splitting in 1 kg of hydrogen and 8 kg of oxygen consumes about 40 /0.8 = 50 kWh electricity by USD 0.05-0.1. The said EM energy generators usually are quite simple and cheap devices by its mechanics point of view, can be about USD 40/kW or so.
So that only sufficient part of total capital cost adds (USD 40 /(8766 hour * 5 years of payback) * 50 kWh = USD 0.046. and in sum USD 0.096 – 0.146 for 1 kg hydrogen production with 8 kg oxygen free.         
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Chemical cycles to bond cheaply atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia - Updated
judbarovski@gmail.com, http://judbarovski.livejornal.com
Idea goes back to 2012
Ammonia world production is very important and rapidly growing (198 millions tons in 2012, 146 million tons in 2006 (+35%)).
83% of it (2004) was used for fertilization. It is very important too for military industry, in chemistry, food and pharmaceutical industries. It is now the general industrial way to bond natural nitrogen. A very promising and growing applications of it are microbiological industry, and as fuels, and other use as a precursor of nitrogenous compounds and/or hydrogen, and many others very different applications.
Moreover, cheap ammonia production in quantity of milliards ton annually can be used as renewable energy storage medium, so to solve a problem of renewable energy usage round-the clock and all-year-round for any designed energy supply schedule.
I intend to offer here an original industrial way (Lithium-cycle) to produce breakthrough cheap ammonia at quite mild industrial conditions and by not sophisticated aids, run at normal atmospheric pressure.
3 Li + 1.5 H2 = (~ 750 C) = 3 LiH + 3 * 90.7 kJ/mol.
3 LiH + N2 = (400-500 C) = Li3N + NH3 - 71 kJ/mol.
Li3N = (400 C) = 3 Li* + ½ N2 – 155 kJ/mol.
Overall reaction: 1.5 H2 + 0.5 N2 = NH3 + 46.19 kJ/mol
You can see that its all heat needs can be covered by excess heat of the first process, and still have 46.19 kJ/(mol of NH3) at about 450 C for electricity production, can be added for the end step of the said technology:
A stoichiometric production cost of such ammonia is
(14 * 1 + 3 * 10) / 17 = 2.59 cents/kg = USD 26.0/ton ammonia, while O & M is minimal. (see the reagents cost estimation in http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/133296.html and http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/133945.html ).
I can offer another variant is running more simply and cheaply:
3 Li +0.5 N2 = (200 C) = Li3N - 155 kJ
Li3N + 3 H2 = (300 C) = 3 LiH + NH3 - 163 kJ
3 LiH = (750 C) = 3 Li + 1.5 H2 - 90.65 * 3 kJ,
and many other analogous cycles can be more or less competitive to above-mentioned ones, and based on more common and cheap metals with hydrogen/nitrogen, e.g. iron, zinc, sodium, potassium, strontium, magnesium, calcium, can be running at more or less mild conditions.
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More economical ship design
Author: David Judbarovski, pensioner, Israel
judbarovski@gmail.com, http://judbarovski.livejournal.com

Here I intend to show my design of much more economical ship.
It consists of a shell with the air inside it and being sank in the water and opened in the bottom, and the upper side of it is a shell for payload being above the water surface and can be equipped by openwork pedestal construction as possibly. The shell for payload can be with much thinner walls than conventional ships. Such ship offered by me can be considered as a variant of a cushioncraft, but with much bigger drug power. Nevertheless, for open sea application my design has evidently big advantages. Let us name my ship as JCS = Judbarovski cushioncraft ship. It needs a small air compressor to compensate the air leakage from the underwater shell.
Here I take USA modern destroyer of Arleight Burke type for economical comparison.
The said destroyer is 155 meter length, 6 meters draft, 20 m beam, about 9000 ton displacement if fully loaded, and 81,000 kW movers, and 56 km/h = 15.5 m/s speed in excess.
Its side + bottom underwater area is about 2 * 20 * 150 + 6 * 150 = 6900 m2 and frontal resistant is 20 * 6 = 120 m2 having 6900/120 = 57.5 times bigger hydrodynamic resistant factor (hrf).
The drag power = 81000 kW = c * 120 m2 * (15.5^3) * 0.5, so c = 0.36, while frontal hrf = 0.18 and side & bottom hrf  = 0.18/57.5 = 0.003.
Let my JCS has the same underwater draft and beam and L meter length, but now side & bottom resistance area is only side resistance.
If  the same 81000 kW = (V^3) * 0.5 * (2 * 6 * (L = 155 m) * 0.003 + 20 * 6 * 0.18), so V= 18 m/s = 65km/s, or 65/56 = 18% quicker.
If the same 56 km/h = 15.5 m/s, and 81,000 kW, the L = 608 m. so payload would be 600 m/155 m = 3.9 times bigger, up to 35,000 ton vs. 9000 ton. Certainly we have to fasten our underwater shell, but it will consume negligible materials, time and money vs. the ship ones.
It is very cheap travel is 35,000 ton * 1 km/ 56 km/h = 81,000/56 kWh * USD 0.06/kWh = USD 86 /35,000 ton-km = USD 0.0025/ton*km  
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Energy and production have to be and are ready to be green & cheap & abundant & inexhaustible, while all materials and parts of equipments for that purpose can be recyclable.
Here below I intend to show it.
It is based on
(1) solar energy concentrator especially invented for producing of breakthrough cheap heat energy up to about 600 Centigrade and down to USD 0.001/kWh or less (see:
http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/89510.html and was updated in http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/133020.html );
(2) new type of electrochemical generators (ECG = Judbarovski Fuel Cell) invented for producing of breakthrough cheap electricity down to USD 0.0012/kWh using the above-mentioned extremely cheap heat energy for the said ECG recycling, can be without any interruption of the said ECG work (see:
http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/84244.html );
(3) method to produce very cheap high temperature energy down to USD 0.0015/kWh by using the said extremely cheap electricity (see:
http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/84535.html );
(4) technology to extract carbon dioxide from the air by breakthrough about USD 5.0/ton CO2 by using the said extremely cheap high temperature energy, and even from cars exhaust (see: (
http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/132407.html and http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/132709.html );
(5) KNO2/KNO3 cycle to produce breakthrough cheap hydrogen by USD 0.14/kg using above-mentioned breakthrough cheap heat and electricity (see
http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/120527.html )
(6) Chem cycles to bond atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia by USD 26.0/ton + a little for O & M (see http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/133835.html )

(7) potassium cycle process invented to produce extremely cheap hydrocarbons down to USD 9.0 /bbl o.e. (barrel of oil equivalent) using the said cheap heat energy and the said extremely cheap carbon dioxide, and water (see: http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/85188.html );
(8) universal water purification/desalination technology as incredibly cheap as USD 0.05/m3 for green & cheap & abundant & inexhaustible fresh clean water supply can be delivered to any point of Earth cheaply by extremely cheap energy (see:
http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/86261.html );
(9) plants’ farming using the said cheap concentrated carbon dioxide for the plants feeding that can sufficiently increase and cheapen the plants yield (see:
http://judbarovski.liveurnal.com/85523.html );
(10) microbiological technology using the said extremely cheap artificial hydrocarbons, e.g. methane, as raw material to produce industrially green & cheap & abundant & inexhaustible meat products down to USD 0.02/kg from air, water and sunshine (see:
http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/85815.html );
All cost estimations were made by world market prices of 2013 yr. of materials and if used own mass industrial production of all equipments used for mass end product by them. The said equipments are especially designed to be not sophisticated, even very simple ones for all above-mentioned technologies disclosed here below.
In any case all that can be considered as “a roadmap” for sceptics.

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