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david judbarovski

Fri, Feb 10, 2017 at 7:29 PM
To: gigafactory@tesla.com
Cc: press@tesla.com
Bcc: Mahabala Adiga <bala.adiga@gmail.com>
Dear Tesla Gigafactory team,
Dear Secretary,

Date: Feb 10, 2017

My idea is worthy to be shown directly to the highest  level of Tesla
management, and your R & D unit and Business Planning and Development.
Each dollar investment in my Li-production technology in short-term
time can save 30-50 dollar annually for Li-demand by present market

A key and wonderfully simple element of my principle invention is a
short tube dragged by a sea ship. The tube’s front side is open, its
walls are Li-ion exchange resin, and a hole at a back side and the
ship velocity are controlled for creating designed technological
pressure inside the said tube. The said resin is recuperated
periodically. It’s conventional technology, and isn’t a big news. It
was disclosed by me some years ago in internet.

Each 1000 kW power of the ships leased can extract 100 ton lithium per a year.

Best regards,
David Judbarovski, engineering systems, retired engineer of golden
age, active and actual principle inventor, judbarovski@gmail.com,
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Flying vehicle of new type - a crazy idea vs. Boeing-747

David Judbarovski, engineering systems, retired engineer, Israel

judbarovski@gmail.com , http://judbarovski.livejournal.com


I take the Boeing-747 as a prototype for my invention, being further consideration of my kite-car idea (see: http://judbarovski.livejornal.com/139058.html ). I can name it the FVK (Flying Vehicle of Kite-type).

Let be 400 ton – a take-off weight, 200 ton – an empty-weight,

900 km/h – cruise velocity = 250 m/s for Boeing-747 taken for comparison. Cruise ceiling is about 10,000 m, air density 0.26 * 1.3 = 0.34. And 4 engine with total thrust being about 4 * 250 kN = 1000 kN

Our FVK dimensions can be H * B * L = 25 m * 8 m * 10 m, and 75 grade or so being its angle to horizon, when its take-off and its flying positions.

Let be 900 km/h = 250 m/s too, D – draft force, L - lift force, G – take-off weight, GC - cruise weight. GC = L can be controlled by the said angle. For its 75 grade L/D ~= 3.7.

D ~= 0.5 * 0.34 * 25 m * 8 m * 250^2 * 0.5 = 1070 kN being cruise thrust of the FVK.


L = 800 * 3.7 = 4000 kN = 400 ton. So GC – L <= 0, being compensated by the said angle, if G being 400 ton.

For take-off and landing it needs a special short working engine with maximal thrust = 400 ton, or special service.

For take-off the FVK must reach L = 4000 kN = 0.5 * 1.2 * 25 * 8 * V^2 * 0.5, so for take-off we can reach V = 135 m/s = 480 km/h isn’t needed in any runway.
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Dear Mr. Brook,
let allow me to continue with my numerically evaluation of your problem of renewable energy supply for rural areas of Ethiopia by affordable prices.
As I had studied quite comprehensive review about Ethiopia’s population, energy, economics, geography and so on (www.cia.gov , and if it is wrong, pls. inform me!)
rural population is about 80 million persons using less than 0.2 kWh electricity daily per capita in average, and less than USD 160 GDP /month/capita. Now your country consumes 6.7 milliard kWh (2014), mainly being hydropower.
I think about 8 kWh/daily for a family of 8 persons with USD 2.5 monthly bill for them can be quite affordable. And it needs about USD 50.0 million of capital investments during 5 years, if following my article, you had met recently in internet (http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/138750.html - “Cheap energy production and delivery everywhere including mobile applications, Jan 19, 2017).

Disclosure for experts in chemistry, electrochemistry and mechanical engineering

I can offer for your cases to distribute ammonia in its liquid form at 20 bars even for very remote settlements from regional ammonia storage, for example, by trucks with a tank about some m3 of volume. In average, one truck can supply 80,000 people by the ammonia as intermediate fuel, can release hydrogen by heating. The said hydrogen is used for hydrogen-air fuel cells to produce electricity (about 17 kJ/gram ammonia, and it is 30% more and cheaper than by hydrocarbons fuel).
The ammonia is produced industrially from the air and the water by about USD 20.0/ton (see the above-mentioned my article), and can have agriculture application too, and can be used as an intermediate fuel for above-mentioned trucks with the hydrogen-air fuel cell.
I think too, that now Ethiopia couldn’t realize my technology in whole volume without  international support and supply, but I can recommend to look for jointly Australia-Japan ammonia program, but corrected correspondingly my point of view on the problem.

David Judbarovski, systems engineering, retired engineer, Israel
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Kite-car as breakthrough Aerial Vehicle

Author: David Judbarovski, engineering systems, retired engineer, Israel

judbarovski@gmail.com , http://judbarovski.livejournal.com


It is a car equipped by horizontal axis movers with total drag force D (kN) and with lifting force L (kN) created by contrary air flow by the said force D on a wing in a form of firm flat plate looked as a wing of a kite. We can name such flying car as a Kite-car, can be as piloted one as a UAV. Such design is incredible better than all now known flying cars, and all of them aren’t in market, but are known as prototypes only.


For ordinary kite with a single wing, its optimal L/D = 5 or so, by being equipped by parachute and a motor and wheels it can fly with velocity 40-60 km/h only, because its parachute as common kite is very fragile to resist the big contrary wind load.

Another situation would be for my design offered above. It can resist to big loads in a case of much bigger velocity, and simultaneously can have L/D ratio even bigger than 5.0, if we’ll wish it. So its wing can by quite small.

Really, if our Kite-car being 1000 kg weight and its velocity V being 100 m/s (360 km/h) and supposing with big reserve L/D = 3, so for our wing D = 333 kg = 3333 N, so if S (m2) being the wing’s area, so

3333 ~= 1.2 * S * V^2 * 0.5 = 0.6 * S * 10,000, so S = 0.55 m2 being much less than the real car cross-section. So such Kite-car will consume fuels as an ordinary car with the same cross-section moving on the land with the same velocity, but without its mechanical reliability problems if enormously big velocity. If the Kite-car cross-section being S = 2 m2 and V = 360 km/h, its energy consume would be

3.33 kN * 2/0.55 * 100 m/s * 100 km / 360 km/h = 333 kWh. If energy efficiency being 0.33, so the fuel consume is 1000 kWh = 3.6 million kJ = for gasoline 3,600,000/ (40 kJ/ml) = 90 liter/hour = 25 liter/100 km !!! For 360 km/h, it is excellent!!! And it is estimation with a big reserve. If 120 km/h it is 2.8 liter/100 km = 28 liter/1000 km being incredible too vs. ordinary cars!!!

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Transport technology to bypass the Russia territory breakthrough cheaply and quickly
Author: David Judbarovski, systems engineering, retired engineer, Israel
Ideas go back to 2015

Russia constantly is creating for its partners a big head-ache at any opportunity, but one of the problems can be decidable.
Here the transport means are blimps (non-rigid airships). They are extremely cheap and simple airship, and despite of common point of view they can be much more, than ten thousand m3.
Our blimps are filled by cheap gases being lighter than air. It can be NG (natural gas) or ammonia (NH3). NH3 can release hydrogen after heating by a small part of the NH3.
For example, one blimp can deliver 1000 ton cargo from China (Yiwu) to UK (London)  = 12,000 km twice quicker (a week vs. two weeks) consuming 7%-8% of the said gases as a fuel. At present world market prices the cost of the cargo delivery is about 0.3 cent USA/ ton-km, but with a help of my inventions in a field of fuel production (see http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/138750.html ) it can be 0.02 cent/ton-km.
I hope to answer your experts’ questions and provide them by my engineering and managing  details and economics evaluations, if they interested and I being answered, but my additional information can be granted additionally.    
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Cheap energy production & delivery everywhere including mobile applications

Author: David Judbarovski, systems engineering, retired engineer, Israel

judbarovski@gmail.com , http://judbarovski.livejournal.com , Linkedin

I can offer to use a technological chain: remote RE (solar and/or wind one) -à chemical energy (ammonia, RNH3) -à liquid ammonia (liquefied at 20 bars) à delivering for consumers (up to 1000-s km by pipes) -à electricity in local micro-grids.


(1) The ammonia can be transformed in hydrogen by heating created by a small part of the said ammonia, and the said hydrogen can be transformed into electricity with very high energy efficiency if using hydrogen-air fuel cell being quite cheap and simple device.

(2) Very cheap RE of much less than USD 0.01/kWh of high temperature heat (down to USD 0.001/kWh or cheaper) is offered here too. It allows RNH3 to be USD 20.0/ton using metal-hydrogen/nitrogen chemical cycles, and hydrogen of USD 0.1/kg by using the said cheap RE-heat.

(3) H2 can be created either by the water splitting at ~ 2500 Centigrade with a help of microwaves concentrated at the RE power plant remotely or by the RNH3 heating locally.

Other attractive alternatives are possible.

By pipe of 1.0 m2 with 5 m/s = 5 m3/s we can deliver incredible 3,300 MW power for some thousand km distance, and a cost of the delivery and energy consume for it is negligible.


NH3 liquid is 680 kg/m3, so 680 *3 * 286,000 kJ/ (2 * 18 *17) = 950.000 kJ/m3

For 70% energy efficiency of H2-air fuel cell, it is 667,000 kJ * 5 m3/s = 3,300 MW !!!

High temperature heat of USD 0.001/kWh by sun you can see in http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/133020.html (‘Solar energy can be extremely cheap and all the year round’, 9.03.2016)

The wind power can be very cheap too (see http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/136757.html , ‘Breakthrough concept of VAWT (vertical axis wind turbine)’, 11.19.2016)

Metal-hydrogen/nitrogen fuel cell as a transformer of the heat in electricity with highest energy efficiency see in http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/84244.html (‘New type of ECG-Updated’. 12.15.2013)

Metal-hydrogen/hydrogen chemical cycles for ammonia production can be, for example:

(a) 3 CaH2 +N2 = Ca3N2 + 3 H2
(b) Ca3N2 + 6 H2 = 3 CaH2 + 2 NH3, and we can use several analogous
processes instead it, with the same incredible cheap ammonia, here is
USD20.0/ton NH3, while O & M cost is negligible.

Method for the water splitting to produce H2 we can see in http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/133945.html - (‘Water splitting down to 10 cents/kg H2 by microwave generator’, 9.18.2016).

Mobile application of the said electricity for urban traffic you can see, as an example, in http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/138073.html , ‘Self-driving car as a grid element and its battery’, 12.12.2016)

Instead of the ammonia as energy delivery carrier we can use very cheap artificial carbon based fuels ( see http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/134477.html , 9.20.2016)

For waste CO2 exhaust capture we can use two different technologies (see

(a) http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/132709.html , ‘Solvecolab-MIT, Prize for CO2 sequestration from cars’, 8.15.2016)


(b) http://judbarovski.livejournal.com/132407.html , ‘Solvecolab-MIT, Cost of CO2 chemical capture, if breakthrough cheap energy’, 8.15.2016)

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Linkedin inbox letter to Mr Jeff Conolly,  CEO of Siemens Pacific, Chairman of Prime-Minister Industry 4.0 Taskforce, Jan 7, 2017
Synergy (1)self-driving Uber taxi as a urban grid element doesn't need a powerful battery, but tiny one for occasions only, and (2) remote cheap RNH3 delivered and then transformed in the said urban electricity, and (3) the said UEV-taxi as a new type of cars in the world markets, and (4) UAV (car) with a kite-type angle for intercity traffic more than 300 km/s, and (5) 24/7/365 RE-heat for RNH3 production using my heat storage vs. Siemens...   
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Self-driving car as a grid element and its battery allow all heavy problems of urban traffic to overcome cheaply
Author: David Judbarovski, systems engineer, pensioner, Israel
judbarovski@gmail.com, http://judbarovski.livejournal.com
gmail post on 28.10.2016

Synergy of
(1) a model of private taxi network globally dispatched and optimized on-line, which allows consumers with smartphones to submit a trip request, and
(2) usage electric cars, further self-driving ones as the taxi powered analogously to a trolleybus,
can extremely cheapen and lighten the said electric taxi, because it would be not needed in rechargeable batteries, but only a tiny one for short manoeuvers on a road.
We wouldn’t need to charge powerful batteries, but can charge our gadgets along the travel.
Private cars can be forbidden in the cities and removed for parking at park stations outside the city boundaries and be used for outside city travels only.
Such synergy can save a lot of time and money and energy in private life and in economics, and clean air and save space in our cities.

It can be a method to overcome completely all heavy problems of urban traffic now suffered by:.
(1) traffic jams as a consequence of growing incompatibility of urban roads and growingquantity of private cars on the roads were built in absolutely another epoch. So average cars velocity is quite slow simultaneously inducing very wasteful fuel consume with more harmful exhaust.
(2) electric cars and hybrid ones use rechargeable battery being in principle very expensive and heavy devices with quite short lifetime;
(3) private cars are used for the traffic during a very small part of their lifetime. The general state of them is a parking at the roads sides decreasing the roads capacity. As a rule, they are cars with four or more sits used for one-two persons’ traveling.
(4) Mini- cars now being in more and more quantity on the roads, they have a low velocity in principle for their travelers saving. So in spite of a common point of view, they are lowering the traffic capacity. Analogously it is right for bicycles as human muscles powered ones as the ones equipped by rechargeable battery;
(5) All above-mentioned transportation means are suffered by human mistakes on the road vs. even present level of self-driving cars.
(6) In a case of crashes or breakage of a private car, the car’s owner is faced to be lonely with such problems on the road and afterword or attract nearest service of quality being unknown to him. Certainly, the UBER Technology Inc. model of private taxi network dispatching globally and optimizing, allows consumers with smartphones to submit a trip request. It is a first step in right direction for completely overcome of all heavy problems of urban traffic. Certainly, the said private taxi can be self-driving cars, but it is in our hands to bring the future to be realized in nearest two-three years, because all technologies for it are known, and the said point of view is known and it isn’t my own invention or discovery. Such system can automatically optimize the choice of best traffic route for minimizing the time and the cost of the route and the taxi waiting time. What we would be needed, it is to order the start and final point and quantity of passengers and cargo, and a willing time of delivery and that is all. It is electric car taxi powered analogously to trolleybus, so by clean and cheap energy than a fuel burning.  It can extremely cheapen and lighten the said electric taxi, because it would be not needed in rechargeable batteries, but only a tiny one allowing manoeuver on a road. We wouldn’t need to charge powerful batteries, but can charge our gadgets along the travel and use them by free internet. Moreover, all private cars can be forbidden in the cities and removed for parking at park stations outside the city boundaries and be used for outside city travels only.
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Method to increase a range of helicopter
Author: David Judbarovski, principle inventor, systems engineering, pensioner, Israel
judbarovski@gmail.com , http://judbarovski.livejournal.com
[3692]-7.12.2016, [3693]-8.12.2016, {142}-p.133

The system carried by a mother ship consists of:
(1) some helicopters
(2) flexible walls balloons in blow off state;
(3) small tanks with ammonia being a liquid at 20 bars pressure;
(4) tiny heater for reforming the ammonia in hydrogen.
Just before a helicopter mission, the balloon is filled by the hydrogen reformed from the ammonia  by heating, and another small balloon is filled by fuel for the helicopter and for the balloon with hydrogen, and then the trio comprising the said balloons and helicopter moves with velocity ~ 250 km/h up to a point of the helicopter separate start for its mission, while the balloon filled by hydrogen can either wait the said helicopter after ending of its mission, or can be substituted by another hydrogen balloon carrying a fresh portion of fuel, or as the option, can carry a small boat with a fresh portion of fuel and ammunition or another cargo for helicopter, can repeat its mission for some times.
It is important to note, that the hydrogen balloon is carrying a fuel balloon only or the said boat, while the helicopter is jointed with fuel balloon by thin pipe. 
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Method to increase a specific impulse of rocket engine
Author: David Judbarovski, principle inventor, engineering systems, pensioner
judbarovski@gmail.com, http://judbarovski.livejournal.com
[3573], [3572], [3571] – 17.10.2016, gmail-ВИТ-28.10.2016, 18.10.2016, 20.10.2016

My invention serves to save a lot of money and time and fuels for space mission.
A specific impulse being increased, it allows fuel consume to be diminished for reaching a designed velocity of a rocket.
The fuel invented is a primary fuel (in my case it has a specific impulse of 2.3 km/s) creates high temperature if being burned, and such temperature is enough to split the water in hydrogen and oxygen. In its turn, the said water has been created from the said primary fuel, when it is burned. Such hydrogen and such oxygen are a secondary fuel with a specific impulse of about 4.5 km/s.

Here the nitromethane, CH3NO2, is a primary fuel. At normal conditions it is a liquid, has properties of its specific weights, safety of its application, storage conditions, and velocity of its laminar burning,  the all being similar to the ordinary gasoline.
Let consider and compare our primary fuel with a fuel being kerosene and cryogenic liquid oxygen, had been used in the first stage of the Saturn 5 rocket, was allowing USA missions with astronauts’ landing on the Moon. 
There was CH2(l) + 1.5 O2 (l) = CO2 (g) + H2O (steam) + 614 kJ/mol for 62 weight units of fuel
vs. my offer: 
CH3NO2 (l) + 0.25 O2 (l) = CO (g) + 1.5 (H2 + 0.5 O2) + 0.5 N2 – negligible 3 kJ/mol.
With a secondary burning, it creates 426 kJ for 69 units of fuels, used by the rocket to get the same designed velocity at designed altitude. For example, it allows to reach the start point of second stage of the rocket, is needed for output on low Earth orbit and uses a conventional fuel here being two cryogenic liquids of oxygen and hydrogen.
(Third stage of the rocket has a know-how disclosed in Appendix at the end of the article).
Real specific impulse of (H2 + 0.5 O2)(cryogenic liquids) was 4.13 km/s, while for kerosene with liquid oxygen it was 2.58 vs. our fuel with 3.0 km/s, and the last sufficiently lightens the rocket start mass, while liquid cryogenic oxygen would be needed in six-fold less quantity, than the start with kerosene and oxygen. 
Saturn 5 was a three stages’ rocket with a start mass of 2995 ton. 
The first stage was 2290 ton at the start.
The weight of the 2-nd and 3-rd stages + empty weight of the 1-st stage was G0 = 749 ton in sum, and the fuel for the 1-st stage was G1 = 2160 ton, and specific impulse was 2.58 km/s.
dV = ims * ln ( G1/GO + 1) – g * t,
here dV(km/s) is the velocity, can be reached, ims (km/s) is specific impulse, g = 9.81 (m/s), t = 165 second is a time of the fuel burning, so g * t = 1.6 km/s.
dV = 2,58 * ln (2160/749 + 1) - 1,6 = 3,46 – 1,6 = 1,86 km/s.
To reach the said velocity of 1.86 km/s by our rocket, the total start weight must me 2357 ton, and 1608 ton is the 1-st stage’s start weight, and the liquid oxygen in it is less 630 ton vs. total weight of Saturn 5 being 2995 ton with liquid oxygen for its 1-st stage being 1672 ton, hence 2.65 times bigger, so the problems for the start were in 2.65 times bigger.
in our case, imp = 4.13 * 0,39 + 2,3 * 0,61 = 3,01 km/s. ln(G2/749 + 1) = 3.46/3 = 1.15, so G2 = 1608 ton is the weight of our fuel, so our rocket’s total start weight is 1608 +749 = 2357 ton.

A rocket can use the air as a oxidant for our primary fuel:
CH3NO2 + 0.75 O2 + 3.0 N2 = CO2 + 1.5 H2O + 3.5 N2 + 709 kJ/mol, at 4000 Centigrade.
Such heat is able to split 2.5 mol H2O in hydrogen and oxygen, so we can take additional 1.0 mol H2O and can split it into the jet fuel, but in comparison with a rocket fuel of kerosene with the air as the oxidant, our rocket has sufficiently more heavy weight, but it can reach sufficiently higher velocity.
Nevertheless, in comparison to rockets with a monopropellant, our rocket is better in all respects, because its specific impulse is sufficiently bigger.

After output on the Earth orbit, for further getting the 3-rd escape velocity, the time can be arbitrarily long, so we can take the ordinary water on board and gradually split, by solar energy of relatively small power, the said water in hydrogen and oxygen the both simultaneously used as a jet fuel. It’s the record best chemical fuel in Universe.
For large space vehicle, i.e. for Mars long mission with human team on board, i.e. about 1000 ton of payload weight, it looks as insoluble problem, if trying to use the water electrolysis for the water splitting, because the said device’s weight calculated would be much heavier than total weight of the said space vehicle.
So we need to find non-ordinary decision.
The electricity can be produced with a help of photovoltaic panel, and its electricity is transformed by small & light & cheap & simple ordinary vacuum microwave pulse generator in electromagnetic beam, further concentrated by simple mirror on a high temperature small plate being sunk underwater and heated up to 2500 centigrade is enough to split the water. The said water is in a vessel being transparent for the said microwaves.  The photovoltaic panel is adjusted to be perpendicular to solar beams with a help of servomotors fed by a tiny part of power of the jet fuel. The said equipment can be multiplied for producing enough large power.
The photovoltaic panel is delivered in a form of a roll and unwrapped in the space.
I have estimated the weight of the water splitting including the weight of the power generation as about 15% of the total weight of the space vehicle for the said Mars mission.  
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