Reverse the global warming cheaply

Quick and cheap way to reverse the present global warming  

Author: David Judbarovski, systems engineering, principle inventor

judbarovski@gmail.com 

Abstract 

It is two steps process. 

(1) Sea water is filtered vertically at low pressure  up to 80% dewatering, is enough to create solid precipitation, mainly being Ca(OH)2 powder (370 kg per 1000 m3 of origin sea water)

(2) The Ca(OH)2 further is used for CO2 capture in open ponds with desalinated water.as solvent. In Appendix, there is a disclosure proving that CO2 capture can be 320 ton /m2 of the ponds annually. 100.0 km2 oceans’ surface totally would be enough.

The said ponds can be distributed on huge artificial islands made of bound buoys and distributed on oceans’ surface and moved there. The Ca(OH)2 production is on the said islands too. Totally it can be unmanned and autonomous with a team and guard for emergency. Energy supply for all operations is disclosed just below.

    

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Take-off and landing device 

Author: David Judbarovski, sysiems engineering, principle inventor, retired 

judbarovski@gmail.com 

It is a cycle of four operations. At first, a charge of liquid vigorous combustible (LVC) , e.g. the water solution of the UAN (a stoichiometry mix of Urea with Ammonia Nitrate) is decomposed by heating gradually in gaseous phase that at controlled pressure is pushing a charge of the water being inside a cylinder, through a hole at the end of it, and works as a water jet, while the pushed water is collected. Then the said gases are exhausted and then the said collected water is pumped through a short pipe back inside the said cylinder closing the cycle. If a cross-section of the said pipe is an order of magnitude bigger than the said hole’s one, the described device is a mover with a thrust after first two operations in order of magnitude bigger than a thrust after the last two operations. 

G = Q * t ; Q = F / v ; v^2 = 2 * g * 10 * P 

Here G (kg) – water consume for take-off or landing 

Q (kg/s) – jets outlet 

t (sec) – a time of a half of cycle 

F (Newton) – the water jets total thrust 

v (m/s) – water outlet velocity through the jet’s nozzle (up to 124 m/s)

P (atm) – LVC’s gases’ pressure in the water container (up to 80.0 atm) 

g = 9.8 m/s2 

The four movers being placed at the ends of a rectangular frame fixed to flying vehicle, it is a take-off and landing device  

For example, F = 10 ton = 100,000 N, t = 0.5 sec.; P = 80 atm.; v^2 = 2 * g * 10 * P = 

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Liquid fuel for sustainability

Liquid fuel for sustainability 

Author: David Judbarovski, systems engineering, principle inventor, retired 

judbarovski@gmail.com 

Abstract

I declare and here prove by clear way, that countries suffered by lack solar energy and snow winters & no free areas & no fossil fuel deposits, they can produce themselves and by themselves oil of refine quality from “air and water” in the full demand, by about USD 0.27/liter (USD 1.0/gallon) as domestic price, and to turn own energy system for distribute electricity supply as main energy source by about USD 0.01/kWh. 

Note: It is an example of circular economics, including CO2 being greenhouse gas exhaust, it is used in carbon cycle.

The said oil can be synthetized on artificial floating islands distributed in open ocean (USD 60.0/ton/m2 of dry surface area) industrially either by known Fischer-Tropsch or by its variations from CO2 (by USD 15.0/ton, 320 ton/year/m2 desalinated water surface area) extracted from the air (see “CO2 mass production from the air very cheaply’, Jan. 11, 2020,  https://judbarovski.blogspot.com/2020/01 )  and H2 (by USD 0.40/kg – see Appendix 1) by splitting of desalinated water. So the oil is estimated to be 

CO2 + 3 H2 = CH2 + 2 H2O; (44 * 15 + 3 * 2* 400 0) / 14 = USD 220/ton + 100 CAPEX = 320 /ton = USD 0.27/liter. 

Analogous calculation can be for onshore with mild climate (see Appendix 2). 

Analogously, we can produce ethanol, being much safer against criminals and terrorist attack. 

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Military value of extra-quick ship of my design

Military value of extra-quick ship of my design 

Author: David Judbarovski, systems engineering, principle inventor, retired 

judbarovski@gmail.com 

Abstract

Being compared with typical destroyer (Type 055, Japan) = USD 60,000,000,00; 13,000 dwt; 112,000 kW; 56 km/h, and with Boeing 787-9 airliner = USD 30,000,000,00; 55 ton payload;  80,000 kW; 900 km/h, my ship is better than the said destroyer in 30 times by CAPEX and 9 times by OPEX, and can substitute 8 destroyers. Correspondingly, with the airliner, 200 times by CAPEX and 80 times by OPEX, substituting 100 them by one ship  

Very shorty, 

Two key elements of my ship are

(1) Slightly lower than sea level, the ship’s nose is tilted back and like a wedge it bends the upstream water upward in the air, and it substitutes the big water resistance by the air resistance being in three orders of magnitude less one Such effect is inherent for very big velocity.. It is new kind of sea ship, breaking all stereotypes.

(2) to add a thin pressed air cocoon created around a hull of the ship. It reduces the power loses by the water viscosity practically to zero.  

Power consideration for my ship 

W = Q * H = ( l * B * H / T ) * H = B * H^2 * V = S * H * V (km/h) / 3.6,

Here: W (kW) – power; Q (m3/s}- water rate; H (m) – ship’s draft = nose height submerged; B (m) – ship’s nose beam submerged; S (m2) = B * H; l (m) nose length submerged; V (m/s) – velocity = V (km/h) / 3.6; T = l / V (m/s) 

So 

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Breakthrough quick ship. Economical aspects

Breakthrough quick ship. Economical aspects 

Author: David Judbarovsk, systems engineering, principle inventor, retired

judbarovski@gmail.com  

Abstract

Extremely quick & cheap sea transport of my design can multiple save a capital cost per dwt vs. present ships. It can be effective used for export: fresh foods, other mass cargo for a long distance, and as a military quick response.  A power of my ship is proportional to its speed, while for conventional ships it is to the cube of speed. As idea it goes back to summer, 2018.

Two key elements of my ship are [1]:

(1) Slightly lower than sea level, the ship’s nose is tilted back and like a wedge it bends the upstream water upward in the air, and it substitutes the big water resistance by the air resistance being in three orders of magnitude less one  Such energy effect is inherent for very big velocity.. It is new kind of sea ship, breaking all stereotypes.

(2) to add a thin pressed air cocoon created around a hull of the ship. It reduces the power loses by the water viscosity practically to zero. 

Power consideration for my ship 

Let be 

W (kW) – power 

Q (m3/s}- water rate 

H (m) – ship’s draft = nose height submerged

B (m) – ship’s nose beam submerged 

S (m2) = B * H

l (m) nose length submerged 

V (m/s) – velocity = V (km/h) / 3.6 

T = l / V (m/s) 

So 

W = Q * H = ( l * B * H / T ) * H = B * H^2 * V = S * H * V (km/h) / 3.6,

So W = 0.28 * S * H * V (km/h), hence a power is proportional to a speed !!!. 

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Seafood via atmospheric CO2 utilization

Seafood via atmospheric CO2 utilization 

Abstract 

Seafood farming can be distributed on open oceans as closed specialized artificial ecosystems of phytoplankton growing with mineral fertilizers, for feeding of small fishes & shellfishes, they feed a valuable fish being a commercial end product of extremely low cost. Such farms are well standardized and scalable. . 

200 million ton valuable seafood annually needs about 45,000 km2 oceans’ area (0.013 %). 

We can deploy such farms in any place with not severe winds and with optimal high temperatures. Neither solar illumination nor atmospheric CO2 as intake, are a bottleneck for such technology. The only bottleneck could be very poor nutrients in open oceans waters, but it will be no problem to create the best nutrient conditions known on the Earth by plentiful mineral fertilizers (N, P, Fe and so on). 

By oceanographer Redfield (1934), “the stoichiometry is the consistent atomic ratio of C : N : P was found in marine phytoplankton and throughout of deep oceans and in dissolved nutrient pools is constant 106 : 16 : 1”. 

For example, it is quite reachable NPP - Net Primary Productivity of carbon organic matter – 3 kg C/ m2/ year.~= 18 kg primary biomass ~= 4500 ton valuable fish/ km2/ year 

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Advanced kind of cargo ship

Advanced kind of cargo ships 

Author: David Judbarovski, systems engineering, principle inventor 

judbarovski@gmail.com 

Abstract

The cargo ship can be fueled by ammonia, if a service crew being at safe distance on a separate vessel. The said ammonia has to be free of carbon derivatives and sulfur ones,. If decomposed. it is feeding H2-air fuel cells to power the ship’s electric engines. Such fleet is much more energy effective vs. conventional fleet, and doesn’t use any moving parts at high temperature, and its exhaust is clean, being the water steam and inert nitrogen. 

My especial attention was dedicated for following problems of ammonia fueling. 

(1) The ammonia must be without contaminants, poisoning the said fuel cells. 

For that purpose, the ammonia can be produced “from water and air”. I can underline that it can be extremely cheap ammonia, isn’t implying cryogenic air separation.in nitrogen with oxygen as by-product.[1]. Hydrogen is another component of ammonia -NH3. 

The set of magnetrons emits a dense EM-energy. Being focused, it creates a high temperature at tiny spot inside the water body and decomposing it in mix of hydrogen and oxygen,, being cooled by ambient water body. The said magnetrons are very simple and cheap construction, but extremely energy effective near to 100 %, so the hydrogen would be cheaper than after the water electrolysis. 

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NH3 in H2 for FC, breakthrough technology

NH3 as the H2 Carrier and breakthrough Method of NH3 decomposition 

Author: David Judbarovski, systems engineering, principle inventor, retired 

Abstract 

Here I suppose to offer the method of the hydrogen extraction from ammonia by its oxidation partly,  at moderate temperatures. Such hydrogen can be served as a clean and cheap and non- poisoning fuel for H2-air Fuel Cells for high energy effective engines’  powering without any harmful exhaust being the water vapor and nitrogen only. 

At present, decomposition of ammonia needs noble metal catalysts, being very expensive and rare ones, so such hydrogen is very expensive, and it is a big obstacle for large-scale introducing it as a common technology in the world practice. . 

The problem of substitution the noble metal catalyst by something more cheap and common is a hot engineering problem being now  not solved.

(see Bell, T.E., Torrente-Murciano, L. H2 Production via Ammonia Decomposition Using Non-Noble Metal Catalysts: A Review. Top Catal 59, 1438–1457 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11244-016-0653-4 )

In its turn, the direct thermal  decomposition of ammonia isn\t possible by thermodynamics point of view. 

Here just below I suppose a following chemistry offered by me: 

NH3 + 0.2 O2 = 0.5 N2 + 0.4 H2O  + 1.1 H2. 

So effectiveness of the chemistry by hydrogen production would be 

K = 1.1 * 2 / 3 =  73%, and supposing Fuel Cell energy efficiency as 67 %, 

the system’s total energy efficiency would be 73% * 67% ~= 50 % by NH3 as a fuel

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NH3 fueled ship, template # 1

(A) https://www.statista.com/topics/1728/ocean-shipping/

Ocean Shipping - Statistics & Facts 

Published by Statista Research Department, Mar 18, 2020 

The international seaborne trade volume has been on an increasing trend in recent years. However, in 2018, the maritime trade volume grew only by 2.7 percent on the previous year, down from the 4.1 percent registered in 2017. Further slowdown is expected to occur in 2020, as shipping companies will incur further costs to comply new International Maritime Organization’s sulfur cap regulations. At the same time, the trade and supply chain disruptions caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic reverberate across the global economy. 

(B) Fuel Consumption by Containership Size and Speed

https://transportgeography.org/?page_id=5955 

//if normal speed of about 24 knots, a fuel consume is varied from 200 ton/d for 9,000-10,000 TEU and 

up to 300 ton/d at 4,000-5,000 TEU //

Citation

Information cited from this web site should be referred to as either:


  • Rodrigue, J-P (ed) (2017), The      Geography of Transport Systems, Fourth Edition, New York: Routledge.
  • Rodrigue, J-P et al. (2017) The      Geography of Transport Systems, Hofstra University, Department of Global      Studies & Geography, https://transportgeography.org.  

· I can be contacted directly by email: jean-paul.rodrigue@hofstra.edu

· Home page: https://sites.hofstra.edu/jean-paul-rodrigue/

·  

(C) Ecological Effects of Ammonia 

https://www.mda.state.mn.us/ecological-effects-ammonia 

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Sea vessel with clean exhaust (NH3)

Sea vessel with clean exhaust (NH3)

Author: David Judbarovski, systems engineering, principle inventor 

Abstract

Here ammonia is used as a fuel for transportation by sea, while for safety of crew, it goes at a safe gap from the sea vessel. 

Note^ 

If an accident with  ammonia leakage or even if its burst from its storage to the sea water, the ammonia is turn in ammonia hydroxide solution, widely applied in everyday life, and food industry  and pharmacy and so on..  

Reference: 

https://www.ammoniaenergy.org/articles/wartsila-tests-internal-combustion-of-ammonia/ 

https://www.manifoldtimes.com/news/wartsila-begins-ammonia-testing-to-advance-future-marine-fuel-capabilities/

(b)Towards a 100% renewable energy future https://www.wartsila.com/energy/vision

(c)Wärtsilä begins ammonia testing to advance future marine fuel capabilities

26 Mar 2020

(https://www.wartsila.com/energy/vision